The precepts are not works of ethics in the philosophical sense. Theories emerging from Europe or European-based cultures are known as the Western canon of philosophy. The same practical bent can be found in other early codes or lists of ethical injunctions. Questions of morality like these generate the field of philosophy called ethics. How do we assign value to actions? Log in here for access. In the Vedic philosophy, the basic principle of the universe, the ultimate reality on which the cosmos exists, is the principle of rita, which is the word from which the Western notion of right is derived. Nirvana, however, is not to be sought for oneself alone; it is regarded as a unity of the individual self with the universal self in which all things take part. It is sometimes thought that because the Buddhist goal is nirvana, a state that can be reached by meditation, Buddhism teaches a withdrawal from the real world. | 21 The great Code of Hammurabi is often said to have been based on the principle of “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth,” as if this were some fundamental principle of justice, elaborated and applied to all cases. There are three main theories of ethics: virtue, utilitarianism, and deontology. Deontology stems from the mind of 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. Through such a life one might reach the ultimate goal, nirvana, a state in which all living things are free from pain and sorrow. 234 lessons What is ethics? The Vedas are, in a sense, hymns, but the gods to which they refer are not persons but manifestations of ultimate truth and reality. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. ', 'What are good family values?' Against the postulation of an eventual spiritual liberation, Charvaka ethics urged each individual to seek his or her pleasure in the here and now. In the process, Buddhism suffered the same fate as the Vedic philosophy against which it had rebelled: it became a religion, often rigid, with its own sects, ceremonies, and superstitions. If you cannot think of a personal example, m, The executive officers of Rouse Corporation have a performance-based compensation plan and the performance criteria of this plan is linked to growth in earnings per share. {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons During the following centuries the moral philosophy of this early period gradually became a rigid and dogmatic system that provoked several reactions. According to Kant, these categorical imperatives were the basis of ethical action because they were always true, no matter what the circumstance. Why, then, should one follow these precepts? Here are the five core ethical streams in Western philosophic thought: Virtue Ethics/Relational ethics Deontology Rights Utitlitarianism Communitarianism Critics of deontology argue that the only way to determine the goodness of an action is to examine its consequences. Good must triumph over Evil The field of ethics focused on the morality of the consequences of an action is named, appropriately enough, consequentialism. Finding Truth. Instead, it spread in different forms south into Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia and north through Tibet to China, Korea, and Japan. Emphasis. The precepts are full of sound observations and practical wisdom, but they do not encourage theoretical speculation. Other moral duties are also derived from the notion of nonviolence. One, which is uncharacteristic of Indian thought in general, was the Charvaka, or materialist school, which mocked religious ceremonies, saying that they were invented by the Brahmans (the priestly caste) to ensure their livelihood. In this connection, the Book of Job is notable as an exploration of the problem raised for those who accept this motive for obeying the moral law: why do the best of people frequently suffer the worst misfortunes? Stealing, of course, is another form of injury, but because of the absence of a distinction between acts and omissions, even the possession of wealth is seen as depriving the poor and hungry of the means to satisfy their wants. From these ends follow certain virtues: honesty, rectitude, charity, nonviolence, modesty, and purity of heart. Approach. Basically, an action is morally justified if the person doing it is virtuous. The other great ethical system to develop as a reaction to the ossified form of the old Vedic philosophy was Buddhism. These types of theories, which are concerned with how we ought to act, belong to the branch of philosophical study called normative ethics. Roots in. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Focus. Logic, Cause and Effect. There are four major ethical theories: deontology (or duty), utilitarianism, rights, and virtue. This is an irony of history, however, because the Buddha himself was a strong critic of religion. This emphasis persisted in the more detailed laws laid down elsewhere; as much as half of such legislation was concerned with crimes against God and ceremonial and ritualistic matters, though there may be other explanations for some of these ostensibly religious requirements concerning the avoidance of certain foods and the need for ceremonial cleansings. 's' : ''}}. So now, when someone asks, 'What's the right thing to do?' courses that prepare you to earn What impact does diversity have on the development and implementation of an organizational ethics program? As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 The third branch of normative ethics is virtue ethics, which examines the virtue of the actor, not the action. These precepts were intended for the instruction of the ruling classes, however, and it is not clear why helping the destitute should have contributed to an individual’s good reputation among this class. The proverbs, like the precepts of the Egyptians, are brief statements that do not demonstrate much concern for systematic presentation or overall coherence. John Stuart Mill disagrees. It frequently prescribes the death penalty for offenses that do not themselves cause death—e.g., for robbery and for accepting bribes.
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